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Gedalin, Michael

Faculty
Gedalin, Michael
Email
gedalin@bgu.ac.il
Office
54/326
Phone
08-6461645
Website
http://physics.bgu.ac.il/~gedalin
Research type
Theoretical
Research topics

Astrophysics; Space and plasma physics

Research highlights

Researcher identification

Publications

  1. Cohen, S. And Sarid, E. And Gedalin, M., "Fokker-Planck Coefficients For A Magnetized Ion-Electron Plasma", Physics Of Plasmas 25, 012311 (2018)
  2. Granit, Gilad And Gedalin, Michael, "Whistler Precursor And Intrinsic Variability Of Quasi-Perpendicular Shocks", Journal Of Plasma Physics 84, 905840113 (2018)
  3. Elikashvili, A. And Gedalin, M. And Golbraikh, E., "The Initial Vortex Aloft And Helical Structure Near The Surface", Physics Of Fluids 29, 026602 (2017)
  4. Gedalin, M., "Rankine-Hugoniot Relations In Multispecies Plasma With Gyrotropic Anisotropic Downstream Ion Distributions", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 122, 11857-11863 (2017)
  5. Gedalin, Michael, "Effect Of Alpha Particles On The Shock Structure", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 122, 71-76 (2017)
  6. Gedalin, M., "Transmitted, Reflected, Quasi-Reflected, And Multiply Reflected Ions In Low-Mach Number Shocks", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 121, 10754-10767 (2016)
  7. Gedalin, M., "Downstream Plasma Parameters In Laminar Shocks From Ion Kinetics", Physics Of Plasmas 23, 102904 (2016)
  8. Gedalin, M. And Drge, W. And Kartavykh, Y. Y., "Dependence Of The Spectrum Of Shock-Accelerated Ions On The Dynamics At The Shock Crossing", Physical Review Letters 117, 275101 (2016)
  9. Gedalin, M. And Droege, W. And Kartavykh, Y. Y., "Dynamics Of High Energy Ions At A Structured Collisionless Shock Front", Astrophysical Journal 825, 149 (2016)
  10. Kartavykh, Y. Y. And Droege, W. And Gedalin, M., "Simulation Of Energetic Particle Transport And Acceleration At Shock Waves In A Focused Transport Model: Implications For Mixed Solar Particle Events", Astrophysical Journal 820, 24 (2016)
  11. Gedalin, M., "Collisionless Relaxation Of Non-Gyrotropic Downstream Ion Distributions: Dependence On Shock Parameters", Journal Of Plasma Physics 81, 905810603 (2015)
  12. Gedalin, M. And Droege, W. And Kartavykh, Y. Y., "Scatttering Of High-Energy Particles At A Collisionless Shock Front: Dependence On The Shock Angle", Astrophysical Journal 807, 126 (2015)
  13. Gedalin, M. And Friedman, Y. And Balikhin, M., "Collisionless Relaxation Of Downstream Ion Distributions In Low-Mach Number Shocks", Physics Of Plasmas 22, 072301 (2015)
  14. Gedalin, M. And Kushinsky, Y. And Balikhin, M., "Profile Of A Low-Mach-Number Shock In Two-Fluid Plasma Theory", Annales Geophysicae 33, 1011-1017 (2015)
  15. Kumar, Rahul And Eichler, David And Gedalin, Michael, "Electron Heating In A Relativistic, Weibel-Unstable Plasma", Astrophysical Journal 806, 165 (2015)
  16. Balikhin, M. A. And Runov, A. And Walker, S. N. And Gedalin, M. And Dandouras, I. And Hobara, Y. And Fazakerley, A., "On The Fine Structure Of Dipolarization Fronts", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 119, (2014)
  17. Ariad, D. And Gedalin, M., "The Role Pickup Ions Play In The Termination Shock", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 118, 2854-2862 (2013)
  18. Boynton, R. J. And Balikhin, M. A. And Billings, S. A. And Reeves, G. D. And Ganushkina, N. And Gedalin, M. And Amariutei, O. A. And Borovsky, J. E. And Walker, S. N., "The Analysis Of Electron Fluxes At Geosynchronous Orbit Employing A Narmax Approach", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 118, 1500-1513 (2013)
  19. Golbraikh, E. And Gedalin, M. And Balikhin, M. And Zhang, T. L., "Large Amplitude Nonlinear Waves In Venus Magnetosheath", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 118, 1706-1710 (2013)
  20. Krasnoselskikh, V. And Balikhin, M. And Walker, S. N. And Schwartz, S. And Sundkvist, D. And Lobzin, V. And Gedalin, M. And Bale, S. D. And Mozer, F. And Soucek, J. And Hobara, Y. And Comisel, H., "The Dynamic Quasiperpendicular Shock: Cluster Discoveries", Space Science Reviews 178, 535-598 (2013)
  21. Ofman, L. And Gedalin, M., "Two-Dimensional Hybrid Simulations Of Quasi-Perpendicular Collisionless Shock Dynamics: Gyrating Downstream Ion Distributions", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 118, 1828-1836 (2013)
  22. Ofman, L. And Gedalin, M., "Rippled Quasi-Perpendicular Collisionless Shocks: Local And Global Normals", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 118, 5999-6006 (2013)
  23. Balikhin, M. A. And Gedalin, M. And Reeves, G. D. And Boynton, R. J. And Billings, S. A., "Time Scaling Of The Electron Flux Increase At Geo: The Local Energy Diffusion Model Vs Observations", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 117, A10208 (2012)
  24. Gedalin, M. And Smolik, E. And Spitkovsky, A. And Balikhin, M., "Electron Heating By Filamentary Instability", Epl 97, 35002 (2012)
  25. Griv, Evgeny And Gedalin, Michael, "Stability Of Galactic Discs: Finite Arm-Inclination And Finite-Thickness Effects", Monthly Notices Of The Royal Astronomical Society 422, 600-609 (2012)
  26. Haim, L. And Gedalin, M. And Spitkovsky, A. And Krasnoselskikh, V. And Balikhin, M., "Nonlinear Waves And Shocks In Relativistic Two-Fluid Hydrodynamics", Journal Of Plasma Physics 78, 295-302 (2012)
  27. Dubrovin, Katya And Golbraikh, Ephim And Gedalin, Michael And Soloviev, Alex, "Turbulent Viscosity Variability In Self-Preserving Far Wake With Zero Net Momentum", Physical Review E 84, 027302 (2011)
  28. Gedalin, M. And Spitkovsky, A. And Medvedev, M. And Balikhin, M. And Krasnoselskikh, V. And Vaivads, A. And Perri, S., "Relativistic Filamentary Equilibria", Journal Of Plasma Physics 77, 193-205 (2011)
  29. Walker, S. N. And Balikhin, M. A. And Zhang, T. L. And Gedalin, M. E. And Pope, S. A. And Dimmock, A. P. And Fedorov, A. O., "Unusual Nonlinear Waves In The Venusian Magnetosheath", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 116, A01215 (2011)
  30. Gedalin, M. And Medvedev, M. And Spitkovsky, A. And Krasnoselskikh, V. And Balikhin, M. And Vaivads, A. And Perri, S., "Growth Of Filaments And Saturation Of The Filamentation Instability", Physics Of Plasmas 17, 032108 (2010)
  31. Griv, E. And Gedalin, M., "Fine-Scale Density Wave Structure Of Saturn'S Rings: A Hydrodynamic Theory", Astronomy & Astrophysics 521, A46 (2010)
  32. Hobara, Y. And Balikhin, M. And Krasnoselskikh, V. And Gedalin, M. And Yamagishi, H., "Statistical Study Of The Quasi-Perpendicular Shock Ramp Widths", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 115, A11106 (2010)
  33. Griv, Evgeny And Gedalin, Michael And Eichler, David, "The Stellar Velocity Distribution In The Solar Neighborhood: Deviations From The Schwarzschild Distribution", Astronomical Journal 137, 3520-3528 (2009)
  34. Ofman, L. And Balikhin, M. And Russell, C. T. And Gedalin, M., "Collisionless Relaxation Of Ion Distributions Downstream Of Laminar Quasi-Perpendicular Shocks", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 114, A09106 (2009)
  35. Balikhin, M. And Gedalin, M., "Generalization Of The Harris Current Sheet Model For Non-Relativistic, Relativistic And Pair Plasmas", Journal Of Plasma Physics 74, 749-763 (2008)
  36. Bregman, Michal And Gedalin, Michael, "Diffusion Dominated Dynamics Of Avalanching Systems", Physica A-Statistical Mechanics And Its Applications 387, 2328-2336 (2008)
  37. Gedalin, M. And Balikhin, M., "Climate Of Utopia", Nonlinear Processes In Geophysics 15, 541-549 (2008)
  38. Gedalin, M. And Balikhin, M., "Rankine-Hugoniot Relations For Shocks With Demagnetized Ions", Journal Of Plasma Physics 74, 207-214 (2008)
  39. Gedalin, M. And Balikhin, M. A. And Eichler, D., "Efficient Electron Heating In Relativistic Shocks And Gamma-Ray-Burst Afterglow", Physical Review E 77, 026403 (2008)
  40. Gedalin, M. And Liverts, M. And Balikhin, M. A., "Distribution Of Escaping Ions Produced By Non-Specular Reflection At The Stationary Quasi-Perpendicular Shock Front", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 113, A05101 (2008)
  41. Hobara, Y. And Walker, S. N. And Balikhin, M. And Pokhotelov, O. A. And Gedalin, M. And Krasnoselskikh, V. And Hayakawa, M. And Andre, M. And Dunlop, M. And Reme, H. And Fazakerley, A., "Cluster Observations Of Electrostatic Solitary Waves Near The Earth'S Bow Shock", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 113, A05211 (2008)
  42. Zhu, D. And Balikhin, M. A. And Gedalin, M. And Alleyne, H. And Billings, S. A. And Hobara, Y. And Krasnosel'Skikh, V. And Dunlop, M. W. And Ruderman, M., "Nonlinear Dynamics Of Foreshock Structures: Application Of Nonlinear Autoregressive Moving Average With Exogenous Inputs Model To Cluster Data", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 113, A04221 (2008)
  43. Balikhin, Michael And Gedalin, Michael, "Space Plasmas And Astrophysical Plasmas Studies Interrelation - Preface", Planetary And Space Science 55, 2223 (2007)
  44. Griv, E. And Gedalin, M. And Lyubarsky, Yu., "Prediction Of The Fine-Scale Irregular Structure In Saturn'S A, B, And C Rings", Advances In Space Research 38, 770+ (2006)
  45. Griv, Evgeny And Gedalin, Michael, "Turbulent Viscosity And Lifetime Of Saturn'S Rings", Planetary And Space Science 54, 794-807 (2006)
  46. Gedalin, M And Balikhin, M And Coca, D And Consolini, G And Treumann, Ra, "Kinetic Description Of Avalanching Systems", Physical Review E 72, 037103 (2005)
  47. Gedalin, M And Bregman, M And Balikhin, M And Coca, D And Consolini, G And Treumann, Ra, "Avalanches In Bi-Directional Sandpile And Burning Models: A Comparative Study", Nonlinear Processes In Geophysics 12, 733-739 (2005)
  48. Gedalin, M And Bregman, M And Balikhin, M And Coca, D And Consolini, G And Treumann, Ra, "Dynamics Of The Burning Model", Nonlinear Processes In Geophysics 12, 717-723 (2005)
  49. Griv, E And Gedalin, M, "Exploring Local N-Body Simulations Of Saturn'S Rings", Planetary And Space Science 53, 461-472 (2005)
  50. Gedalin, E And Moalem, A And Razdolskaya, L, "Meson U(3)(L) Circle Times U(3)(R) Chiral Theory With Flavor And Nonet Symmetry Breaking", Nuclear Physics A 732, 125-148 (2004)
  51. Gedalin, E And Moalem, A And Razdolskaya, L, "A Chiral Effective Field U(3)(L) Circle Times U(3)(R) Theory For Light Mesons", Nuclear Physics A 733, 213-234 (2004)
  52. Gedalin, M And Balikhin, M, "Electric Potential In The Low-Mach-Number Quasi-Perpendicular Collisionless Shock Ramp Revisited", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 109, A03106 (2004)
  53. Griv, E And Gedalin, M, "Changes Of Angular Momentum And Entropy Induced By Jeans-Unstable Density Waves In Stellar Disks Of Flat Galaxies", Astronomical Journal 128, 1965-1973 (2004)
  54. Gedalin, M And Krasnoselskikh, V, "Special Issue: Collisionless Shocks - Preface", Planetary And Space Science 51, 627 (2003)
  55. Griv, E And Gedalin, M, "The Fine-Scale Spiral Structure Of Low And Moderately High Optical Depth Regions Of Saturn'S Main Rings: A Review", Planetary And Space Science 51, 899-927 (2003)
  56. Griv, E And Gedalin, M And Yuan, C, "On The Stability Of Saturn'S Rings To Gravity Disturbances", Astronomy & Astrophysics 400, 375-383 (2003)
  57. Griv, E And Gedalin, M And Yuan, C, "On The Stability Of Saturn'S Rings: A Quasi-Linear Kinetic Theory", Monthly Notices Of The Royal Astronomical Society 342, 1102-1116 (2003)
  58. Eichler, D And Gedalin, M And Lyubarsky, Y, "Coherent Emission From Magnetars", Astrophysical Journal 578, L121-L124 (2002)
  59. Gedalin, M And Balikhin, M And Strangeway, Rj And Russell, Ct, "Long-Wavelength Mirror Modes In Multispecies Plasmas With Arbitrary Distributions", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 107, 1018 (2002)
  60. Gedalin, M And Gruman, E And Melrose, Db, "Mechanism Of Pulsar Radio Emission", Monthly Notices Of The Royal Astronomical Society 337, 422-430 (2002)
  61. Gedalin, M And Gruman, E And Melrose, Db, "New Mechanism Of Pulsar Radio Emission", Physical Review Letters 88, 121101 (2002)
  62. Griv, E And Gedalin, M And Yuan, C, "The First Detection Of Warping Of Outer Stellar Disks In N-Body Simulations Of Isolated And Rapidly Rotating Disk-Shaped Galaxies", Astrophysical Journal 580, L27-L30 (2002)
  63. Griv, E And Gedalin, M And Yuan, C, "Quasi-Linear Theory Of The Jeans Instability In Disk-Shaped Galaxies", Astronomy & Astrophysics 383, 338-351 (2002)
  64. Gedalin, E And Moalem, A And Razdolskaya, L, "Pseudoscalar Meson Mixing In Effective Field Theory", Physical Review D 64, 076007 (2001)
  65. Gedalin, M, "Influence Of The Rippling On The Collisionless Ion And Electron Motion In The Shock Front: A Model Study", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 106, 21645-21655 (2001)
  66. Gedalin, M And Gruman, E And Melrose, Db, "Low-Frequency Waves In Asymmetric Magnetized Relativistic Pair Plasma", Monthly Notices Of The Royal Astronomical Society 325, 715-725 (2001)
  67. Gedalin, M And Melrose, Db, "Waves In Strongly Magnetized Relativistic Plasmas: Generally Covariant Approach", Physical Review E 64, 027401 (2001)
  68. Griv, E And Gedalin, M And Eichler, D, "On The Schwarzschild Velocity Distribution Of The Local Stellar Disk", Astrophysical Journal 555, L29-L32 (2001)
  69. Gedalin, M And Newbury, Ja And Russell, Ct, "Numerical Analysis Of Collisionless Particle Motion In An Observed Supercritical Shock Front", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 105, 105-114 (2000)
  70. Griv, E And Gedalin, M And Eichler, D And Yuan, C, "Linear Kinetic Theory Of Instabilities Of A Gravitating Stellar Disk", Astrophysics And Space Science 271, 21-58 (2000)
  71. Griv, E And Gedalin, M And Eichler, D And Yuan, C, "Landau Excitation Of Spiral Density Waves In An Inhomogeneous Disk Of Stars", Physical Review Letters 84, 4280-4283 (2000)
  72. Griv, E And Gedalin, M And Eichler, D And Yuan, C, "A Gas-Kinetic Stability Analysis Of Self-Gravitating And Collisional Particulate Disks With Application To Saturn'S Rings", Planetary And Space Science 48, 679-698 (2000)
  73. Liverts, E And Griv, E And Eichler, D And Gedalin, M, "Local Stability Criterion For A Self-Gravitating Gaseous Disk Of Spiral Galaxies", Astrophysics And Space Science 274, 315-320 (2000)
  74. Gedalin, E And Moalem, A And Rasdolskaya, L, "S-Wave Pi(0) Production In Pp Collisions In A Obe Model", Nuclear Physics A 652, 287-307 (1999)
  75. Gedalin, E And Moalem, A And Razdolskaja, L, "On The Pp -> Pp Eta(Eta `) Reactions Near Threshold", Nuclear Physics A 650, 471-482 (1999)
  76. Gedalin, E And Moalem, A And Razdolskaya, L, "S-Wave Pi(0) Production In Pp Collision From Chiral Perturbation Theory Calculations With Loop Contributions", Physical Review C 60, 031001 (1999)
  77. Gedalin, M And Griv, E, "Collisionless Electrons In A Thin High Mach Number Shock: Dependence On Angle And Beta", Annales Geophysicae-Atmospheres Hydrospheres And Space Sciences 17, 1251-1259 (1999)
  78. Gedalin, M And Griv, E, "Role Of Overshoots In The Formation Of The Downstream Distribution Of Adiabatic Electrons", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 104, 14821-14825 (1999)
  79. Griv, E And Yuan, C And Gedalin, M, "Small-Amplitude Density Waves In Galactic Discs With Radial Gradients", Monthly Notices Of The Royal Astronomical Society 307, 1-23 (1999)
  80. Melrose, Db And Gedalin, Me, "Relativistic Plasma Emission And Pulsar Radio Emission: A Critique", Astrophysical Journal 521, 351-361 (1999)
  81. Melrose, Db And Gedalin, Me And Kennett, Mp And Fletcher, Cs, "Dispersion In An Intrinsically Relativistic, One-Dimensional, Strongly Magnetized Pair Plasma", Journal Of Plasma Physics 62, 233-248 (1999)
  82. Balikhin, M And Krasnosel'Skikh, Vv And Woolliscroft, Ljc And Gedalin, M, "A Study Of The Dispersion Of The Electron Distribution In The Presence Of E And B Gradients: Application To Electron Heating At Quasi-Perpendicular Shocks", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 103, 2029-2040 (1998)
  83. Gedalin, E And Moalem, A And Razdolskaja, L, "A Covariant Obe Model For Eta Production In Nn Collisions", Nuclear Physics A 634, 368-392 (1998)
  84. Gedalin, M, "Low-Frequency Nonlinear Stationary Waves And Fast Shocks: Hydrodynamical Description", Physics Of Plasmas 5, 127-132 (1998)
  85. Gedalin, M And Melrose, Db And Gruman, E, "Long Waves In A Relativistic Pair Plasma In A Strong Magnetic Field", Physical Review E 57, 3399-3410 (1998)
  86. Gedalin, M And Newbury, Ja And Russell, Ct, "Shock Profile Analysis Using Wavelet Transform", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 103, 6503-6511 (1998)
  87. Newbury, Ja And Russell, Ct And Gedalin, M, "The Ramp Widths Of High-Mach-Number, Quasi-Perpendicular Collisionless Shocks", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 103, 29581-29593 (1998)
  88. Zilbersher, D And Gedalin, M And Newbury, Ja And Russell, Ct, "Direct Numerical Testing Of Stationary Shock Model With Low Mach Number Shock Observations", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 103, 26775-26782 (1998)
  89. Balikhin, Ma And Woolliscroft, Ljc And Alleyne, Hsc And Dunlop, M And Gedalin, Ma, "Determination Of The Dispersion Of Low Frequency Waves Downstream Of A Quasiperpendicular Collisionless Shock", Annales Geophysicae-Atmospheres Hydrospheres And Space Sciences 15, 143-151 (1997)
  90. Gedalin, K, "Electro-Osmotic Oscillations", Physica D 110, 154-168 (1997)
  91. Gedalin, M And Scott, Tc And Band, Yb, "Optical Solitary Waves In The Higher Order Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation", Physical Review Letters 78, 448-451 (1997)
  92. Zilbersher, D And Gedalin, M, "Pickup Ion Dynamics At The Structured Quasi-Perpendicular Shock", Planetary And Space Science 45, 693-703 (1997)
  93. Gedalin, M, "Covariant Relativistic Hydrodynamics Of Multispecies Plasma And Generalized Ohm'S Law", Physical Review Letters 76, 3340-3343 (1996)
  94. Gedalin, M, "Transmitted Ions And Ion Heating In Nearly Perpendicular Low-Mach Number Shocks", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 101, 15569-15578 (1996)
  95. Gedalin, M, "Noncoplanar Magnetic Field In The Collisionless Shock Front", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 101, 11153-11156 (1996)
  96. Gedalin, M, "Ion Reflection At The Shock Front Revisited", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 101, 4871-4878 (1996)
  97. Gedalin, M And Gedalin, K And Balikhin, M And Krasnosselskikh, V, "Comment On Demagnetization Of Electrons In Inhomogeneous E Perpendicular To B: Implications For Electron Heating In Shocks By M. Gedalin Et Al - Reply", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 101, 2567-2569 (1996)
  98. Moalem, A And Gedalin, E And Razdolskaja, L And Shorer, Z, "The Nn->Nn Eta Reaction Close To Threshold", Nuclear Physics A 600, 445-460 (1996)
  99. Gedalin, M And Gedalin, K And Balikhin, M And Krasnosselskikh, V, "Demagnetization Of Electrons In The Electromagnetic-Field Structure, Typical For Quasi-Perpendicular Collisionless Shock Front", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 100, 9481-9488 (1995)
  100. Gedalin, M And Gedalin, K And Balikhin, M And Krasnosselskikh, V And Woolliscroft, Ljc, "Demagnetization Of Electrons In Inhomogeneous E-Perpendicular-To-Ib - Implications For Electron Heating In Shocks", Journal Of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 100, 19911-19918 (1995)
  101. Moalem, A And Gedalin, E And Razdolskaja, L And Shorer, Z, "Threshold Production Cross-Section Of The Pp-]Pp-Eta Reaction In A Nonrelativistic Obe Model", Nuclear Physics A 589, 649-659 (1995)
  102. Davidson, A And Gedalin, E, "Finite Magnetic-Flux Tube As A Black-And-White Dihole", Physics Letters B 339, 304-308 (1994)
  103. Gedalin, M, "Nonlinear-Waves In Hot Magnetized Plasma", Physics Of Plasmas 1, 1159-1167 (1994)
  104. Gedalin, Ev, "Properties Of Multiply-Charged Color Tubes", Physical Review D 48, 1424-1429 (1993)
  105. Gedalin, M, "Nonlinear-Waves In 2-Fluid Hydrodynamics", Physics Of Fluids B-Plasma Physics 5, 2062-2075 (1993)
  106. Gedalin, M And Eichler, D, "Nonlinear Plasma Mechanisms Of Pulsar Eclipse In Binary-Systems", Astrophysical Journal 406, 629-637 (1993)
  107. Gedalin, M And Peter, W, "Particle-Acceleration Mechanisms In The Auroral Acceleration Region", Ieee Transactions On Plasma Science 20, 740-744 (1992)
  108. Gedalin, M, "Relativistic Hydrodynamics And Thermodynamics Of Anisotropic Plasmas", Physics Of Fluids B-Plasma Physics 3, 1871-1875 (1991)
  109. Gedalin, M, "Maximum-Entropy Principle For Anisotropic-Plasma", Physics Of Fluids B-Plasma Physics 3, 2149 (1991)