Physical Review Letters -- July 26, 1999 -- Volume 83, Issue 4, pp.
How Long Does It Take for the Kondo Effect to Develop?
Department of Physics and Rice Quantum Institute,
Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892
Michael Pustilnik and Yigal Meir
Physics Department, Ben Gurion University, Beer
Sheva, 84105, Israel
Ned S. Wingreen
NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way,
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
David C. Langreth
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers
University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019
(Received 16 March 1999)
The time development of the Kondo effect is theoretically investigated
by studying a quantum dot suddenly shifted into the Kondo regime by a
change of voltage on a nearby gate. Using time-dependent versions of
both the Anderson and Kondo Hamiltonians, it is shown that after a time t
following the voltage shift, the form of the Kondo resonance matches
the time-independent resonance at an effective temperature Teff
= T/tanh(pi Tt/2). Relevance of the buildup of
the Kondo resonance to the transport current through a quantum dot is
demonstrated. ©1999 The American Physical Society
PACS: 72.15.Qm, 73.50.Mx, 85.30.Vw
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