Experimental Methods in Quantum Materials- BGU Physics Department
BGU Physics Department

Experimental Methods in Quantum Materials

(3 points, 3 hours)
course number 203-2-4611



  1. New material physics, constructing new ground states, on the known unknown and the unknown unknown, adaptation of known quantum systems, theoretical predictions, starting from scratch.
  2. Bulk single crystal synthesis: solution growth (Flux), chemical vapor transport (CVT) growth, solid state growth.
  3. Thin film synthesis: pulsed laser deposition, molecular beam epitaxy.
  4. Structural characterization methods: powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), Laue X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy. 
  5. Neutron Scattering: introduction, scattering properties, scattering from a lattice, scattering from powder, inelastic scattering, magnetic scattering.
  6. Low temperature measurements: liquid Nitrogen, Liquification of Helium and the discovery of superconductivity, cooling below 1 Kelvin, Helium 3, dilution refrigerator, adiabatic demagnetization, low-T thermometry.  
  7. Thermodynamics: specific heat and heat capacity, DC magnetization, AC susceptibility, de Haas-van Alphen quantum oscillations.
  8. Electrical transport: magnetoresistance and temperature dependence in metals, high field measurements (DC vs. Pulsed), Shubnikov de-Hass quantum oscillations, Hall effect, anomalous Hall effect, quantum Hall effect.
  9. Thermal transport: thermal conductivity, Seebeck and Peltier effects. 
  10. Spintronics: Basic concepts, giant magnetoresistance, spin scattering, magnetic tunnel junctions, spin transfer torque, domain wall motion, applications.
  11. Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES): introduction, kinematics of photoemission, three-step model and sudden approximation, one-particle spectral function, matrix elements and finite resolution effects, the system, demonstration.
  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM): introduction, one-dimensional potential barrier model, the WKB tunneling approximation, density of states, Bardeen model, constant current and constant height modes, voltage-dependent imaging, tunneling spectroscopy, differential conductance and its relation to the density of states, asymmetry in the tunneling spectra, spectroscopic imaging.     
  13. Fabrication, interference and mesoscopic: state-of-the-art fabrication, Aharonov-Bohm rings, universal conductance fluctuations, ballistic wires and quantum dots.     

Literature (per chapter)

Chapter 1: New material physics, Paul C Canfield 2020 Rep. Prog. Phys. 83 016501. 

Chapter 2: Growth of single crystals from metallic fluxes. P. C. Canfield and Z. Fisk. Philosophical Magazine B 1992, 65, 6.

Chapter 2: Chemical vapor transport reactions – a historical review. Binnewies, Glaum and Schmidt.

Chapters 2+3: Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth, Govindhan Dhanaraj, Kullaiah Byrappa, Vishwanath Prasad, Michael Dudley (Eds.).

Chapter 4: X-ray diffraction crystallography. Yoshida Waseda, Eiichiro Matsubara and Kozo Shinoda. Springer.

Chapter 4: Principles of protein X-ray crystallography. Chapter 12. Jan Drenth. Springer.

Chapter 4: Practical Raman Spectroscopy. D. J. Gardiner and P.R. Graves (Eds.). Springer-Verlag.

Chapter 5: Neutron scattering – A Primer, by Roger Pynn, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. 

Chapter 6: Matter and methods at low temperatures. Frank Pobell. 2007 Springer.

Chapter 7: Specific heats at low temperatures, E.S.R. Gopal, Springer.

Chapter 7: Magnetic measurement Techniques for materials characterization, Victorino Franco, Brad Dodrill (Eds.), Springer.

Chapter 7: Strongly Correlated Systems – Experimental Techniques, Adolfo Avella, Ferdinando Mancini (Eds.), Springer.

Chapter 8: Magnetoresistance in metals. A.B. Pippard. Cambridge University Press. 

Chapter 8: Strongly Correlated Systems – Experimental Techniques, Adolfo Avella, Ferdinando Mancini (Eds.), Springer.

Chapter 8: Magnetic oscillation in metals. D. Shoenberg. Cambridge University Press. 

Chapter 8: The quantum Hall effect. D.Yoshioka. Springer.

Chapter 9: Thermal conductivity. Theory, properties and applications. Terry M. Tritt (Editor).

Chapter 9: Thermoelectric power of metals. Frank J. Blatt, Peter A. Schroeder, Carl L. Foiles and Denis Greig. Plenum Press. 1976.

Chapter 10: Spintronics, fundamentals and applications. Puja Dey and Jitendra Nath Roy. Springer.

Chapter 11: Strongly Correlated Systems – Experimental Techniques, Adolfo Avella, Ferdinando Mancini (Eds.), Springer. 

Chapter 12: Scanning Probe Microscopy, Bert Voigtländer, Springer. 

Chapter 13: Mesoscopic physics and electronics. T. Ando, Y. Arakawa, K. Furuya, S. Komiyama and H. Nakashima (Eds.). Springer.


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